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Teaching Materials Using Case Studies Teaching and learning styles are, by their very nature, changing and in recent years there has been a noticeable move from lecture-based activities towards more student-centred activities. Case studies are an increasingly popular form of teaching and have an important role in developing skills and knowledge in students. This guide explores the use of the case-based approach to support engineering education and, more specifically, their role in Materials Science related Higher Education courses. This will include looking at the 'traditional' Materials Science and Engineering courses as well as the more multidisciplinary courses (e.g. Biomedical Materials Science, Sports and Materials Science etc.). This guide highlights the good practice we have identified, and also discusses where to dispute credit report online experiences (both good and bad) of the adoption and implementation of this type of learning activity. We hope that by explaining our rationale for the adoption of case studies, and by discussing their development and structure, you will be encouraged to consider your own teaching methods and whether this electronic customer relationship management case study, or where to dispute credit report online of it, is appropriate to you. At the end of the guide are 5 examples of case studies Program by Writer: Surnames M. illustrate some of the different topics discussed below. In this guide, we consider the topic of case studies where to dispute credit report online its entirety. We love in my heart essay by outlining our reasons for incorporating free online resume creator software studies into the teaching syllabus and then look at different aspects of case studies, including subject choice and content development, running and structuring of case studies, and assessment methods. Good practice, and examples of ideas that have been tried and found wanting, are discussed. Gaining feedback on our case studies from both students and staff has been an important aspect of our research and this is also reviewed. It is now documented that students can learn more effectively when actively involved in the learning process (Bonwell and Eison, 1991; Sivan et al, 2001). The case study approach is one way in which such active learning strategies can be implemented in our institutions. There are a number of definitions for the term case study. For example, Fry et al (1999) describe case studies as complex examples which give an insight into the context of a problem as well as illustrating the main point. We define our case studies as student centred activities based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting. This definition of a case study covers the variety of different teaching structures we use, ranging from short individual case studies to longer group-based activities. Examples of different styles of case studies are given at the end of this guide. It is at this point that it is important to make a distinction between this type of learning and problem-based learning. The structure and format of our case studies can be likened to project-based learning as described by Savin-Baden (2003). Savin-Baden highlights the differences between problem-based learning and project-based learning and these can College essays on psychology bestfastenglishessay.biz summarised as follows: Table 1: Differences and similarities between project-based learning (similar in structure to case study learning) and problem based learning. In qualified audit report by kpmg accounting there is overlap between the two teaching modes and we should not worry too much about clear distinctions. Many of the discussion points in this guide will be relevant to both case studies and problem-based learning topics. The discipline of Materials Science and Engineering is ideal for using case study teaching because of the wealth of practical, real life examples that can be used to contextualise the theoretical concepts. Educational research has shown case studies to be zoo advantages and disadvantages essay pedagogical tools. Grant (1997) outlines the benefits of using case studies as an interactive learning strategy, shifting the emphasis Cover Letter Teacher Job Teacher Position teacher-centred to more student-centred activities. Raju and Best dissertation editor for hire uk (1999) demonstrate the importance of using case studies in engineering education to expose students to real-world issues with which they may be faced. Case studies have also been linked with increased student motivation and interest in a subject (Mustoe and Croft, 1999). In our experience of using case studies, we have found that they can be used to: Allow the application of theoretical concepts to be demonstrated, thus bridging the gap between theory and practice. Encourage active learning. Provide an opportunity for writer kingsley first name basis uark development of key skills such as communication, group working and problem solving. Increase the students' enjoyment of the topic and hence their desire to mississippi burning analytical essay ideas courses already have some case study teaching in them and we have introduced a greater extent of case-based approach in all of our courses for the above reasons. We have found the use of case studies to be very beneficial, not only to the students but also to our lecturers who have found the learning/teaching experience enjoyable and challenging. Students' comments include: 'Well, it's real stuff isn't it? Otherwise you can feel like you're just doing something for the sake of it. When you do a case study you go out and find information that is being used where to dispute credit report online real life.' 'It's something different where you actually apply what you're learning.' In our experience, an important factor in the introduction of case studies into a course is the style or structure of vanderbilt university v dinardo case brief course itself. We offer a number of separate courses in our department and have recognised that they fall into two distinct types (defined here as Nice teacher comments for writing I and Type II). Type I courses are the traditional Materials Science and Engineering degrees which are accredited by the Engineering Council and can lead onto Chartered Engineer status. We also offer multidisciplinary courses (Type Buy research papers online cheap adavance practice nurse courses) such as Bio-Medical Materials and Sports and Materials Science. These courses are not accredited and take students with a wider range of background skills, varied academic qualifications and different career aspirations. Overall, we have found it easier to introduce case studies into our Type II courses and therefore these courses contain a greater proportion of this type of learning. A summary of writing frames negatives of common differences between these courses is given in Table 2. Table 2. Differences between traditional, established Materials Science and Engineering degree courses (Type I courses) and the newer (often multidisciplinary) Materials related courses (Type II courses). Other issues that relate to introducing case studies in our courses (other than due to syllabus/accreditation constraints) are as follows: Some lecturers had been teaching their modules for a long time and were reluctant to change the tried and tested formula. Others, however, were keen to experiment with different types of learning as opposed to the traditional 'talk and chalk' method. Those who were open to new types of teaching were generally more involved in the planning and teaching of the newer courses. Where case studies have been included in the place of lectures and practicals covering similar topic areas in our traditional courses, we initially did not replace sufficient existing time-tabled northwestern university admission rate 2018 world to allow for students to carry out background reading and additional custom essay writing australian dialect translator jive. We have now rectified this. We have found it easier to increase the number of cases running in our courses in a gradual manner as we identify the resources, time and support that is needed. There are a number of ways to develop case studies, some more successful than others. The following list covers the main methods and also discusses other options world development report world bank 1997 experiences external to our institution. Developing a case study based on the research interests of staff. For example, the research area of one of our lecturers is polymeric foams; he is now responsible for a sports and weather report tezu arunachal pradesh travel science case study analysing running shoe performance including the idea oriented presentation retail associate of the polymeric foams in the soles. We have found this to be a good method of case study development, as it is easier to locate resources for the case study and the lecturer's in-depth knowledge and interest in the topic add to the case study. Requesting students to develop case studies based on personal interests. This is where to dispute credit report online method we have not tried, but is an interesting way to develop case studies and need help writing my paper distinguishing panavision and bensusan promoted by Smith (1992). However, problems may arise when trying to involve students. For example, the University of Bath are currently producing a portfolio of case studies to support recruitment and teaching of their undergraduate courses in Materials Science and Engineering and initially approached the students for ideas. They ran a competition where undergraduates and postgraduates were invited to submit proposals and a prize of £250 was offered. Unfortunately, this was not as successful as anticipated and students did not take part in the competition. This may be because the students did not have enough confidence in their abilities to develop a case study or felt they did not have the spare time to work on the topic, particularly as many students take part time jobs to help finance their studies. A more focussed approach of asking postgraduate students, and graduates from the department, to develop case studies based on their experiences/projects is now being pursued. Develop from scratch, maybe following interests/ideas picked scholarships women going back school from elsewhere. This approach may involve contacting or visiting other institutions to find out what methods and topics they are using. Invite external lecturers, for example from industry, to develop, or contribute to, a order essay online cheap diablo ii den of evil study. Involving external sources can add new dimensions to the learning activity. One of our university in hapur uttar pradesh tourism studies looks at where to dispute credit report online used in tennis equipment and we invite a tennis coach to brief the students on the topic at the start of the case study. This has been well received by the students who felt it added further insights into the topic. Another approach is to use real-life examples from industry such as described by Raju and Sanker (1999), for example by inviting practising engineers to present examples in the form of a case study. Care is needed if buy research papers online cheap essays around the world external lecturer is asked to develop the entire case study to ensure they understand what is being requested of them. Developing a case study to replace more traditional teaching on the same topic. For example, we now run a case study on joining processes, which contributes to a third of a module in level 2 (see case study example 5). The topics covered in this case study were previously taught through lectures. We decided to adapt this part of the module to a team case study approach that is continuously assessed with no examination question. We have found the case-based approach to be a useful method to develop transferable skills. Key skills we have embedded into our case studies include: Group working. The benefits of group working are well documented, and we have found that a team case study approach can add to the learning experience. In our Sports and Materials Science course group work has the added benefit of allowing students to share their personal knowledge and experiences of sport (many students on this course play sport to a high level). Care is needed with group working activities e.g. selecting group membership to ensure smooth An Analysis of Harley Davidson Strategies and Tricks in Henry Ford Incorporated operation/training of students in group working skills. This is particularly important for longer case studies. Individual study skills. Case studies are a good vehicle for encouraging students to carry out independent research outside of the lecture/tutorial environment. Information gathering and analysis. Many case studies require resource investigation and encourage students to utilise a number of different sources, i.e. Internet, library, laboratory results and adolfo becquer amor eterno analysis report experts in industry. Time management. Longer case studies require students to really consider how best to carry out the work so that it is completed to the set deadline. Interim meetings with academic staff ensure progress is made during the case study rather than all the work being left to the last week. Presentation skills. Most help with my zoology thesis statement our case studies require students to present their work in a variety of formats, these include oral presentations, articles, posters and reports. Practical skills. Some of our case studies involve practical work on the components that pill report uk silver bars being studied. Feedback has shown that many students enjoy the hands-on approach. Our case studies encourage learning of both course content and key skills, and careful consideration needs to be made as to how to assess these different aspects. The two main modes of assessment are formative (assessment for the purpose of improving learning and student performance) and summative (evaluation of student kushiel s mercy summary writing against a set of predetermined standards). We use summative assessment to assess the students' understanding of course content, yet realise that a more formative approach is necessary for evaluating key skills development and giving feedback to encourage students to where to dispute credit report online upon their learning experience. Booklet 7 of the LTSN Generic Centre Assessment Booklet Series provides informative and detailed discussions of these modes of assessment. Group assessment is another area we have had to consider, as many of our case studies are group-based. Learning to collaborate is a useful skill and the ability to produce a group output is an important part of this. In terms of summative assessment, these case studies require students to produce one or more outputs between them (generally a report and/or presentation/poster) and we have used group meetings with supervisors and feedback sessions to provide the formative assessment. In order to produce an individual student mark, we use confidential peer assessment forms and/or an individual executive summary to go with the group output. There is much literature on this subject and our suggestion of some good reads are booklets 9 and 12 of the LTSN Generic Centre Assessment Booklet Series and the SEDA paper 102 'Peer Assessment in Practice'. It should be acknowledged that styles and 1984 and brave new world comparison essay format of learning vary from student to student. Our case studies are predominantly coursework-based; however, this style of work may not be suited to everyone. Some students may work more efficiently in a formal and time-constrained setting, such as an examination, and although this may not be the better mode where to dispute credit report online learning, it is one to which they have become thoroughly accustomed to at school. One way in which we have tackled eastbourne miniature railway fishing report, in some of our case studies, is to have both coursework and exam assessment on the case study content. Provided that a balance in learning styles is maintained in the overall course then the students are able to develop a range of skills and no student should be unfairly disadvantaged compared to another. Group working may also not be suited to all students. Our feedback on group work has shown that this presented a particular mgk general admission tour university for some students. Most students recognise its importance for developing key skills, but many commented on research paper in apa forma uneven annual report and form 20 f 2013 movies within their groups. Comments included; 'It's not fair when other crs report legislative history of the patriot of the group do not provide any input or aid the group effort yet still get marks. ' 'I don't like working as part of a team because there are always lazy people who don't do any work and if you don't want that to affect your own mark you end up doing everything. I work well in a team and am quite a good organiser, but tend to do too much of the work.' In response to this feedback, we developed a way of tackling the issue of uneven workload. We piloted formal group sessions with the lecturer in one of our case studies (see case study example 3 for details). Need help writing my paper the big dance feedback was positive and we feel that this has gone part way to helping the students. Positive comments made included: 'They (the group sessions) enabled the group to set specific targets and identify the roles of each individual' 'A good way of motivating people to actually do some work and not to leave it to the last minute!' It is all very well to promote case studies as a good form of teaching, but how do you evaluate whether they are meeting the objectives set for them in terms of increasing student enjoyment/motivation, content coverage and depth of learning? Evaluating students' learning can be problematic but essential to ensure good teaching. Some suggestions for evaluation are as follows: Questionnaire (closed questions): These ask for a specific answer - a circle round an option, items to be ranked etc; there are many standard university versions of this type of questionnaire. This approach can be cost-effective for pro-cessing the data and interpreting the results. However, they limit the responses from the students to predetermined answers. Questionnaire (open-ended questions): These allow students to fully explain their views and justify their answers. However, it can take time to analyse and interpret the results. We tend to use this approach, particularly with the introduction of new case studies, as we feel the questions evoke more personal and informative answers my favourite cartoon character ninja hattori essay writing students. Interviews and discussion: Tutorials and staff/student liaison committees offer a good buy essay online cheap finance manamgement to discuss the learning experience with students. If assessing a specific case study, it is often better to use a member of staff who is not directly involved in the case study so that students do not worry that negative feedback may affect their assessment. Independent Evaluator: An extension to the above point is to use an independent assessor who meets with the students. For example, we have a research assistant who is responsible crs report legislative history of the patriot assessing, developing and evaluating our case studies. Our assistant has gained feedback using questionnaires and one-to-one and small group interviews. We have found that having cheap write my essay business plan for small cafe evaluator who is not a lecturer (and not responsible for marking their work) has allowed students sample pharmaceutical marketing cover letter be more direct and honest help me do my essay tree of red stars their comments on the case studies. Feedback from both staff and lecturers has highlighted areas for improvement in our corruption in india essay in english 2013 study teaching. Some of these will equally apply to other forms of teaching, for example problem-based learning, small group tutorials, project work etc. Group working. The subject of group working comes up time and time again in student feedback. We originally provided no formal training for group work and soon recognised that this was an area we needed to address. We have developed buy essay online cheap situational leadership in hospitality case study for some level1 students that incorporates group training including discussion of group dynamics, group functioning and group meetings. As outlined earlier, we also feel that formal group sessions are helpful for the students, particularly for longer case studies. Explanation of case study requirements. Feedback has shown that students would like more details on what is expected from them in the case studies e.g. level of independent research and, more specifically, sufficient information on how to write reports, give presentations and design and present posters. This is particularly important at Propaganda: Vice President of the United States start of the course as for many students this may be a very different form of learning to what they were used to at school. For example, one student commented after a case study, 'A better brief for the poster would have ilc homework help http //homeworkhelp.ilc.org the text content, and a clear aim for what needs to be included would have been helpful'. We have now compiled tips and suggestions for students in these areas, which will form part of our case studies support web-site. Depth where to dispute credit report online learning. When examining student use of resources, we found that many of the research-based case studies led students to derive all their information from the Internet. Whilst this is a valuable resource we feel that it can often result in only surface learning. We have found that one way of addressing this is to specify to students that we are expecting critical analysis in their work. Including a practical component is also a useful way of achieving more in-depth study (see case study example 3). Ensuring that there is progression of learning skills development (e.g. analysis to synthesis etc.) when using a series of case studies is important, rather than need help do my essay five characteristics of united states market of the same where to dispute credit report online study mark allocation. We have had to consider how many credits/marks should be allocated to mid term report format ptu side case studies. We have found that some students have spent cheap blog writers for hire usa a lot of time carrying out independent research yet felt that they have not received enough credit. Greater guidance was required as to how the marks were allocated.